COYUNTURA

Relato: Cuba y la dictadura del turismo

Jair Villacrez

Hace un año, por estos días, fui detenido en Cuba. A las 7:30 de la mañana tocaron fuertemente la puerta de mi habitación en mi hotel en La Habana. Salí muy rápido ante tanta insistencia, ya que podría tratarse de una emergencia, pues mi compañero de viaje no había llegado a dormir. Al abrir, había siete sujetos esperando: cuatro eran policías uniformados, dos administradores del hotel y una persona encargada de limpieza. “Señor, tiene que acompañarnos”, dijo uno de ellos. Cuando pregunté por qué, respondió que me lo explicarían en el lugar al que me llevarían. Como no acepté moverme sin una orden, exigí hablar con la cónsul de mi país, Perú, pues “estaba en mi derecho”. Entonces, uno de ellos afirmó enérgicamente: “¡Usted no tiene ningún derecho aquí! Colabore, no nos haga usar la fuerza”.

La cara de desprecio con la que me miraban intentando intimidarme y esa frase amenazante pronunciada con tanta firmeza hicieron que solo me limitara a obedecer. A pesar del temor natural que una persona siente en estas situaciones, nunca me mostré asustado ni débil. Pero a ellos esa actitud les parecía desafiante e intentaron ejercer control absoluto sobre mí despojándome de todo lo que tenía. Y me quitaron, además, mi pasaporte y mi teléfono móvil para que no intentara avisar a alguien de lo que ocurría. Me hicieron salir de la habitación y bajar hasta el vestíbulo del hotel rodeado por varios de ellos como si yo fuera un delincuente. Todos los huéspedes me miraban con repudio, como se mira a un sujeto que ha cometido un delito grave. Yo seguía sin entender qué pasaba, pero sentí el odio, rechazo, humillación y temor más grande que jamás había tenido. Un auto patrullero me esperaba ahí. Pero no nos movimos hasta que mi compañero regresara y, una vez con él, salimos en dirección a un local de la Policía Revolucionaria de Cuba (PRC).

Ahí empezó un interrogatorio. Nos hicieron un sinnúmero preguntas a cada uno por separado y nos dijeron cuál era la razón de nuestra detención: haber visitado o conversado con disidentes cubanos. Esa era nuestro delito. Como yo no terminaba de entender qué de malo había en eso, ya que en ningún lugar del mundo me habían detenido por conversar con alguien opuesto al Gobierno (ni en Corea del Norte), cuestioné la arbitraria detención. Entonces ellos dijeron: “no es una detención, es una intervención”.

Frases como estas están por todos lados en La Habana.

Me acusaban de tratar de desestabilizar el país, de querer alterar el orden. Me mostraron unas fotografías en las que aparecía conversando con estas personas. También me dijeron que habían filtrado mis conversaciones por teléfono con uno de ellos, al punto que me dieron el día y la hora exacta en que hablamos. Desde luego, dije que las conocía y que eran mis amigos, que cuál era el problema en hablar con ellos y visitarlos. Quienes me interrogaban decían que estos amigos míos eran “personas mal vistas por el Gobierno y no debía acercarme a ellos”. También me exigieron mostrar las fotografías que había tomado con mi celular y mi cámara, y me hicieron borrarlas.

Ese día, mi amigo y yo teníamos programado un viaje a Varadero, donde pasaríamos nuestros dos últimos días en la isla. El bus debía recogernos en el hotel a las 9:00 a.m., pero evidentemente la detención hizo que perdiéramos el tour. Nos tuvieron allí hasta pasada las 2:30 de la tarde sin darnos absolutamente nada para comer y sin permitirnos comunicación alguna. Durante el interrogatorio, salieron varias cosas sobre nosotros. En mi caso, los policías habían averiguado cosas personales: sabían sobre mi trabajo, mi origen y mi familia. Como en ese entonces yo trabajaba para uno de los gobiernos locales de Lima, me acusaban de ser un “enviado” del Gobierno de Perú para llevar información. También me acusaban de ser espía de los Estados Unidos. Algo que me pareció gracioso (y hasta ridículo). Negué todo eso, definitivamente, porque no era verdad. Pero entró en mí un fuerte temor cuando dijeron: “Nosotros sabemos dónde vive su familia. Sabemos todo sobre usted”, frase que iba acompañada de una malévola sonrisa. Eso puso en alerta mis emociones.

Como vieron que no teníamos nada que ocultar, decidieron dejarnos ir, tras más de siete horas de preguntas absurdas y sin sentido, no sin antes remarcar que teníamos prohibido visitar o conversar con estas “personas mal vistas por el Gobierno”. Nos dijeron que si lo hacíamos, volveríamos al mismo lugar, y tal vez ya no correríamos la misma “suerte” que aquella vez. Nunca antes en mi vida me había sentido oprimido. Nadie me había prohibido algo de manera tan severa y amenazante.

Los ocho días que estuve en la isla me permitieron entender lo lejos que estaba de convertirse en un país libre, como mucho se decía en la prensa tras la muerte de Fidel Castro. Para mí era evidente que Cuba estaba “adoctrinada” y dejar esa ideología le tomaría años. Yo no estaba leyendo un libro de Historia sobre la dictadura en ese país, estaba ahí experimentando y viendo por mí mismo esa realidad, y eso que solo era un turista. Ya imagínense cómo deben sentirse quienes viven esa realidad cada día, con cientos de prohibiciones, dependiendo de la voluntad del Gobierno para que puedan hacer algo “libremente”. Pude hablar con muchas personas que expresaban su dolor, tristeza e impotencia por no poder hacer nada para salir de la situación en la que estaban, e, inmediatamente después de decir algo contra el Gobierno, volteaban a ver si no había una cámara registrando lo que decían.

En mi último día en Varadero, aproveché en caminar por sus hermosas playas. Mientras más me alejaba de la zona hotelera, me acercaba a los pueblitos de Matanzas. Y en eso, uno de los pobladores locales se aproxima para hablarme y pedirme que le regale mis útiles de aseo del hotel (en casa no tenían). Por un momento pensé en hacerlo, pero más por temor a él que a mí, le dije que lo mejor era no conversar para evitar problemas. Recordé rápidamente que esa “libertad” que transmitía la brisa del mar no existía ni para él ni para mí como turista. No estaba en un lugar cualquiera, estaba en Cuba, donde incluso para el turismo hay una dictadura.

Vista panorámica de La Habana desde el emblemático edificio Focsa.

Jair Villacrez
Comunicador por la Universidad de Piura. Le interesa el Periodismo Internacional, Político y Económico. Le encanta la sátira social.
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