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Informe: El autogolpe de Alberto Fujimori en 1992

Imagen: Radio Capital

En un mensaje a la nación nocturno Alberto Fujimori dio la noticia de que iba a disolver el Congreso de la República. Mientras el mensaje era transmitido, diversas entidades del Estado fueron intervenidas por los militares tales como el Ministerio Público y el Poder Judicial. A este suceso en la historia del Perú se le conoce como el autogolpe del 5 de abril de 1992.

Mensaje de Alberto Fujimori

“Como presidente de la República me he sentido en la responsabilidad de asumir una actitud de excepción para procurar aligerar el proceso de esta reconstrucción nacional por lo que he decidido tomar las siguientes trascendentales medidas. Primero: Disolver temporalmente el Congreso de la República (…) Segundo: Reorganizar totalmente el Poder Judicial, el Consejo Nacional de la Magistratura, el Tribunal de Garantías Constitucionales y el Ministerio Público para una honesta y eficiente administración de justicia. Tercero: Reestructurar la Contraloría General de la República (…) Como ciudadano elegido por las grandes mayorías nacionales solo me anima el deseo de lograr la prosperidad y la grandeza de la nación peruana y ello solo será posible a través de una profunda transformación del Estado y sus instituciones”.

Los medios de comunicación

Todo lo ocurrido luego de culminado el mensaje a la nación solo fue cubierto por medios extranjeros. Grupos numerosos de las Fuerzas Armadas irrumpió en las sedes de canales de televisión y estaciones de radio. Coaccionaron a los trabajadores para que continuaran con la transmisión usual como si nada estuviese pasando en el entorno.

Opositores

El gobierno estableció un toque de queda y comenzó a detener a políticos y empresarios bajo ningún sustento legal. El caso emblemático es el del periodista Gustavo Gorriti, quien fue llevado al Pentagonito, ya que las oficinas del Servicio de Inteligencia del Ejército (SIE) se situaban en aquel lugar. Transcurrieron tres días para que el periodista pueda ser liberado, debido a la presión internacional.

¿Fue una medida necesaria?

El expresidente del Tribunal Constitucional, Javier Alva Orlandin, considera que el autogolpe del 5 de abril de 1992 nunca tuvo una justificación y su objetivo real siempre fue el enriquecimiento ilícito de algunos vinculados al poder en el régimen de Alberto Fujimori.

“Fujimori fue elegido democráticamente (en 1990) y se convirtió en un dictador, disolvió el Congreso, el Tribunal de Garantías Constitucionales y destituyó a la mayor parte de los vocales de la Corte Suprema. El golpe no tuvo ninguna justificación sino el anhelo de controlar el poder para el enriquecimiento de quienes, abierta o encubiertamente, ejercían funciones públicas importantes”, declaró en una entrevista para la agencia de noticias Andina en el 2012. 

Hizo hincapié en que el segmento más joven de la sociedad debe conocer estos hechos, dado que “las dictaduras y los movimientos que enarbolan [la] ideología de violencia muchas veces pretenden retornar tras el olvido de la población”.

Santiago Zelada
Periodista
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