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Opinión: Apuntes a considerar en el camino del Perú a la OCDE

Perú.com

El pasado jueves, el Presidente del Consejo de Ministros, Cesar Villanueva, ratificó la voluntad del país para ingresar a la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE). Para 2021, Perú será parte de esta organización que promueve políticas a favor del bienestar económico y social de personas alrededor del mundo (better policies for better lives). De esta manera, podrá acceder a una interesante plataforma para compartir experiencias con otros de los países “avanzados” y buscar soluciones a problemas comunes. En breve, entrar a este club es el equivalente a recibir un ISO de buena gobernanza y hace sentido querer tenerlo.

No obstante, como en todo, hay algunas aristas que vale la pena contemplar. Las políticas que identifica la OCDE probablemente sean buenas. Posiblemente sean una adecuada solución. El problema no es ese, sino es la búsqueda en sí de una solución única. La premisa central del desarrollo hoy en día es que los países menos desarrollados transiten por una proceso de transformación en campos económicos, políticos, societales y de administración pública, para volverse “más desarrollados”. ¿Cómo lo harán? A través de las buenas prácticas trasplantadas.

Lant Pritchett, autor y profesor de la Escuela de Gobierno de Harvard, ha publicado múltiples escritos sobre los peligros de este modelo, sintetizados en lo que ha denominado “capability traps[1], o trampas de capacidad. Este fenómeno consiste en el estancamiento de la capacidad estatal a lo largo del tiempo, a pesar de las retóricas de reforma del gobierno o incluso de la disponibilidad de recursos. Las técnicas que permiten que estas trampas se instalen y persistan son dos: el mimetismo isomorfo y la carga prematura.

Por un lado, los Estados adoptan formas (apariencias y estructuras) de funcionalidad cuando, en realidad, lo que se está haciendo es camuflar una falta persistente de funcionalidad. Como señala Pritchett, esto puedo llevar a una trampa de capacidad cuando organizaciones que adoptan buenas prácticas son premiadas, aun cuando estas no sean consistentes con sus capacidades para la implementación de políticas.

Por otro lado, la carga prematura refiere a la imposición de expectativas muy poco realistas sobre instituciones y sistemas incipientes. Esta presión sobre las instituciones corre el riesgo de socavar procesos de aprendizaje propios y puede también contribuir a un estancamiento.  En la agenda pública educativa[2], por ejemplo, ha venido cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia el rendimiento del país en las pruebas Pisa. Esta herramienta de la OCDE, con su ciclo de evaluación cada tres años, ha generado la implementación de arreglos a corto plazo que ayuden al país a escalar en el ránking rápidamente, a pesar que la evidencia demuestra que cambios en materia educativa son fruto de procesos de largo aliento.

El ingreso de Perú a la OCDE sin duda es un reto que merece ser prioridad no solo del gobierno, sino de Estado. No obstante, para no correr el riesgo de querer replicar, a modo de “copy paste”, las buenas prácticas en materia de política pública, resulta esencial tomar en consideración siempre nuestros propios procesos de desarrollo. Empezar por el nivel micro, y buscar crecer con cambios incrementales.

Referencias:

[1] https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/fs/lpritch/Governance/capability_traps(june2010).pdf

[2] https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/may/06/oecd-pisa-tests-damaging-education-academics

Alonso Flores
Bachiller en Sociología por la PUCP, con estudios de posgrado en la Escuela de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas de la misma universidad. Cinco años trabajando temas de desarrollo, derechos humanos, análisis político y cooperación internacional. Un optimista cauto.
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