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Análisis: Repercusiones de las declaraciones de Trump sobre Jerusalén

Un poco de historia:

Los conflictos entre Israel y Palestina han estado en el centro de atención de la comunidad internacional hace décadas. Sin embargo, desde las declaraciones del Presidente de Estados Unidos, Donald J. Trump, en la Casa Blanca el 6 de diciembre, la política mundial esta dominada por tensión.

Desde 1995, EEUU había declarado a Jerusalén como capital de Israel e instauró su embajada ahí. Sin embargo, dado el conflicto armado y político entre Israel y Palestina, y la dificultad que había probado ser entablar un acuerdo pacífico, los previos presidentes de EEUU optaron por aplazar su aplicación. Trump, bajo la premisa de haber prometido ser un presidente con “ojos abiertos” y “pensamiento fresco”, busca cambiar la estrategia americana al aplicar la política de 1995.

Esta movida política de EEUU ha causado revuelto ya que el plan por un futuro Estado Palestino reconocía a Jerusalén como su capital, haciendo a esta ciudad un punto inquebrantable de conflicto y, por ende, un punto que se había acordado en las Naciones Unidas, que sería dejado en manos de Israel y Palestina.

Declaraciones de Trump:

Dadas las declaraciones de Trump de mudar su embajada y reconocer a Jerusalén como capital, 8 miembros del Consejo de Seguridad hicieron un llamado para una sesión de emergencia. La sesión del 8 concluyó con una mayoría de 14 miembros rechazando las acciones americanas. La declaración conjunta de Inglaterra, Francia, Suecia, Alemania e Italia sostenía que dichas acciones no seguían la línea y objetivos del Consejo y que eran poco útiles en la esperanza de un acuerdo de paz.

Potenciales repercusiones:

Por otro lado, el pueblo palestino ha respondido a estas declaraciones con imparables protestas desde el 6 del presente mes. El llamado, Day of Rage continua, dejando, solo el viernes, más de 750 heridos. Sumando a la violencia de las protestas, la retaliación de las fuerzas israelís y los ataques aéreos, se evidencia también la razón por la cual el líder de Hamas ha sostenido que esta era una declaración de guerra hacia el pueblo palestino y un llamado a un levantamiento.

La esperanza de una solución pacifica como la buscó el presidente de Palestina, Abbas, por más de una década, se ha abandonado. La solución que previamente se había sostenido con la idea de dos Estados y años de negociación ha sido “matada” por las acciones americanas, por lo que Abbas ha rechazado la invitación a una reunión con el vicepresidente de EEUU, Pence.

El pueblo palestino, después de esperar su reconocimiento por décadas bajo la línea de negociación por Abbas, ha demostrado estar impaciente, por lo que ya se habla de una solución de integración con Israel y de búsqueda de derechos igualitarios. Sin embargo, esta opción es poco probable ya que Israel dejaría de ser un Estado con mayoría judía.

Ante esto surgen otras tantas preguntas que iremos abordando en futuros artículos y que tal vez solo el tiempo nos ayuden a responder. ¿Qué se puede esperar del conflicto? ¿Seguirá en incremento de violencia en Palestina tras el fracaso de la negociación? ¿Trump seguirá aplazando su aplicación por el rechazo de la comunidad internacional?

Lucrecia González-Olaechea
Estudiante de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Ha participado en debates sobre temas de política y relaciones internacionales tanto en el Perú como en el extranjero. Actualmente es parte de la Asociación de Estudios sobre las Naciones Unidas del Perú.
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